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The Ultimate Guide to The World As Will And Representation Vol 2 Ebook Rar



The World As Will And Representation Vol 2 Ebook Rar




If you are looking for a profound and challenging philosophical work that explores the nature of reality, human existence, and morality, you might want to check out The World as Will and Representation by Arthur Schopenhauer. This book is considered to be one of the most influential and original works of 19th-century German philosophy, and it has inspired many thinkers, artists, and writers such as Friedrich Nietzsche, Richard Wagner, Leo Tolstoy, Thomas Mann, Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Jorge Luis Borges, Samuel Beckett, and Albert Camus.




The World As Will And Representation Vol 2 Ebook Rar



In this article, we will give you an overview of The World as Will and Representation, its author Arthur Schopenhauer, and its main themes and arguments. We will also tell you how you can download a free ebook version of this book in a rar format. But first, let us introduce you to the book and its author.


What is The World as Will and Representation?




The World as Will and Representation (Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung in German) is the central work of Arthur Schopenhauer's philosophy. It was first published in 1819 (with the date 1818 on the title page), when Schopenhauer was 31 years old. It consists of four books that cover epistemology, ontology, aesthetics, and ethics. In 1844, Schopenhauer published a second edition of the book, which included a fifth book consisting of additional essays and clarifications. In 1859, a year before his death, he published a third edition of the book, which contained some minor revisions.


The title of the book reflects Schopenhauer's main thesis: that the world that we experience around us is not a world that exists independently of our minds, but rather a world that is dependent on our cognition and perception. In other words, the world is a representation (Vorstellung) that is shaped by our mental faculties. However, behind this world of representation, there is a deeper reality that is inaccessible to our rational knowledge, but that is the source and essence of everything that exists. This reality is what Schopenhauer calls the will (Wille), a blind, unconscious, and insatiable force that drives all phenomena and beings. The world, therefore, is the manifestation or objectification of the will.


Schopenhauer's philosophy is largely influenced by two of his predecessors: Immanuel Kant and Plato. From Kant, Schopenhauer adopts the idea that human knowledge is limited by the forms and categories of our understanding, and that we can never know things as they are in themselves (noumena), but only as they appear to us (phenomena). From Plato, Schopenhauer borrows the concept of the Ideas (Ideen), which are the eternal and immutable archetypes of all things, and which can be apprehended only by pure intuition or artistic genius. Schopenhauer also draws inspiration from other sources, such as Buddhism, Hinduism, Christianity, and ancient Greek philosophy.


Who is Arthur Schopenhauer and why is he important?




Arthur Schopenhauer was born on February 22, 1788, in Danzig (now Gdansk, Poland), a city that was then part of the Prussian Empire. His father was a wealthy merchant and his mother was a novelist. He had a cosmopolitan upbringing, traveling extensively with his family across Europe and learning several languages. He was initially destined for a career in business, but after his father's death in 1805, he decided to pursue his interest in philosophy. He studied at the universities of Göttingen, Berlin, and Jena, where he obtained his doctorate in 1813 with a dissertation on On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason.


Schopenhauer spent most of his life as a private scholar, living modestly and independently from academic institutions. He published several works besides The World as Will and Representation, such as On Vision and Colors (1816), On the Will in Nature (1836), The Two Fundamental Problems of Ethics (1841), Parerga and Paralipomena (1851), and On the Basis of Morality (1840). However, he received little recognition and appreciation during his lifetime, as his philosophy was largely ignored or rejected by his contemporaries, who were more interested in the idealism of Hegel and his followers. Schopenhauer died on September 21, 1860, in Frankfurt am Main.


Schopenhauer is important because he offers a unique and original perspective on the nature of reality, human existence, and morality. He challenges the optimism and rationalism of the Enlightenment and the Romanticism of his time, and presents a pessimistic and realistic view of life that emphasizes the role of suffering, irrationality, and conflict. He also provides a rich and insightful analysis of various aspects of human culture, such as art, religion, literature, psychology, history, politics, and science. He is especially influential in the fields of aesthetics and ethics, where he develops a theory of aesthetic experience as a way of transcending the misery of existence, and a theory of ethical action as a way of expressing compassion for all living beings.


What are the main themes and arguments of The World as Will and Representation?




In this section, we will briefly summarize the main themes and arguments of each book of The World as Will and Representation. We will also provide some examples and quotations from the text to illustrate Schopenhauer's ideas.


The World as Representation




In the first book of The World as Will and Representation, Schopenhauer lays out the foundation of his epistemology: how we know what we know about the world. He starts by criticizing Kant's transcendental idealism, which claims that human knowledge is limited by the forms of space, time, causality, and other categories that are imposed by our understanding on the raw data of our senses. Schopenhauer agrees with Kant that we cannot know things as they are in themselves (noumena), but only as they appear to us (phenomena). However, he disagrees with Kant on two points: first, he argues that space and time are not forms of our understanding, but forms of our intuition or sensibility; second, he argues that causality is not a category of our understanding, but a principle of our reason or judgment.


The World as Will




In the second book of The World as Will and Representation, Schopenhauer reveals his metaphysics: what he thinks is the true nature of reality. He argues that behind the world of representation, there is a deeper reality that is not accessible to our rational knowledge, but that is the source and essence of everything that exists. This reality is what Schopenhauer calls the will (Wille), a blind, unconscious, and insatiable force that drives all phenomena and beings. The world, therefore, is the manifestation or objectification of the will.


Schopenhauer uses the word will as a human's most familiar designation for the concept that can also be signified by other words such as desire, striving, wanting, effort and urging. Schopenhauer's philosophy holds that all nature, including man, is the expression of an insatiable will. It is through the will, the in-itself of all existence, that humans find all their suffering. Desire for more is what causes this suffering. [19]


Schopenhauer identifies the will with the thing-in-itself (das Ding an sich), which Kant claimed to be unknowable, but which Schopenhauer claimed to have discovered through introspection. Schopenhauer argues that we can know the will not as an abstract concept, but as an immediate reality that we experience in ourselves and in all things. He writes:


"We find then that our own body is given us in two entirely different ways: first quite directly as representation; secondly as what is known immediately to everyone and may be called a will; and this we know not as representation, i.e., abstractly, but immediately in concrete reality."


Schopenhauer describes the nature and manifestations of the will in various ways. He says that the will is a blind impulse or force that is not divine or benevolent, but 'demonic'. [33] He says that the will is a single, indivisible, and eternal entity that pervades all things and transcends all forms of space and time. He says that the will is free from all multiplicity and distinction, but that it expresses itself in a diversity and order of phenomena through the principle of individuation (principium individuationis), which is governed by space, time, and causality. He says that the will has no aim or purpose, but that it strives endlessly and aimlessly for more existence and satisfaction.


Schopenhauer accounts for the diversity and order of nature by applying his theory of will to different levels of existence. He distinguishes between four grades or levels of objectification of the will: inorganic nature (gravity), organic nature (vegetation), animal nature (sensation), and human nature (reason). He argues that each level of objectification corresponds to a level of cognition or representation: mathematics (pure intuition), physics (perception), biology (understanding), and philosophy (reason). He also argues that each level of objectification corresponds to a level of Idea or archetype: crystal forms (inorganic nature), plant forms (organic nature), animal forms (animal nature), and human forms (human nature). He claims that these Ideas are not mere concepts or abstractions, but eternal and immutable realities that are independent of individual things and can be grasped only by pure intuition or artistic genius.


The Aesthetic Experience




In the third book of The World as Will and Representation, Schopenhauer explores his aesthetics: how we experience beauty and art. He argues that beauty and art are ways of transcending the misery of existence by escaping from the domination of the will. He defines beauty as "the objectification of the will in a way corresponding to our cognitive faculties". [34] He defines art as "the conscious repetition or reproduction of such an objectification". [35]


Schopenhauer classifies the different arts according to their degree of objectification of the will and their effect on our cognition. He distinguishes between six main types of art: architecture (lowest degree), sculpture (higher degree), painting (higher degree), poetry (higher degree), music (highest degree), and tragedy (highest degree). He argues that each type of art has a different way of representing or expressing the Ideas or archetypes of things. He also argues that each type of art has a different way of affecting our state of mind and freeing us from the will.


Schopenhauer views aesthetic contemplation as a way of escaping the will by suspending our ordinary cognition and becoming absorbed in the perception of the object. He writes:


"The effect of this impression on one who is capable of experiencing it, is that he no longer considers the where, the when, the why, and the whither in things, but simply and solely the what."


The Ethical Experience




In the fourth book of The World as Will and Representation, Schopenhauer develops his ethics: how we should act and live in the world. He argues that ethics is derived from his metaphysics of will, and that morality is based on compassion or sympathy. He writes:


"The everyday phenomenon of compassion,the immediate participation, independent of all ulterior considerations, primarily in the suffering of another, and thus in the prevention or elimination of itis the only genuinely moral incentive possible."


Schopenhauer distinguishes between four types of ethical behavior: egoism, malice, compassion, and justice. He argues that egoism is the natural and predominant disposition of most human beings, who act according to their own interests and desires, regardless of the consequences for others. He argues that malice is a rare and perverse disposition, in which some human beings take pleasure in the suffering of others, or inflict harm on others without any benefit for themselves. He argues that compassion is the highest and noblest disposition, in which some human beings feel the pain of others as their own, and act to alleviate or prevent it. He argues that justice is a derivative and secondary disposition, in which some human beings respect the rights and interests of others, and refrain from harming or interfering with them.


The Ascetic Experience




In the fifth book of The World as Will and Representation, Schopenhauer proposes his solution to the problem of human suffering and happiness. He argues that the only way to overcome the misery of existence and attain true peace and satisfaction is to deny the will-to-live, which is the source of all evil and pain. He writes:


"The denial of the will-to-live reveals itself as the last and only possible mode of asserting it."


Schopenhauer conceives of human suffering and happiness in terms of a pendulum that swings between pain and boredom. He argues that human life is a constant struggle to satisfy our desires, which are never fully or permanently fulfilled, but only lead to more frustration and dissatisfaction. He argues that when we do achieve some degree of satisfaction, we soon become bored and restless, and seek new desires to pursue. He argues that this cycle of pain and boredom is inevitable and inescapable, as long as we are attached to the will-to-live.


Schopenhauer proposes asceticism as a means of denying the will-to-live and breaking free from this cycle. He defines asceticism as "a deliberate breaking-off of the will by denying its affirmation" [36]. He argues that asceticism involves a voluntary renunciation of all pleasures, possessions, attachments, and interests, and a complete detachment from the world and oneself. He argues that asceticism leads to a state of resignation, tranquility, and bliss, in which one no longer suffers from the illusions and conflicts of existence.


Conclusion




In this article, we have given you an overview of The World as Will and Representation, its author Arthur Schopenhauer, and its main themes and arguments. We have seen how Schopenhauer presents a unique and original perspective on the nature of reality, human existence, and morality, based on his concept of the will as the ultimate reality behind all phenomena. We have also seen how Schopenhauer proposes various ways of transcending the misery of existence and attaining a higher state of awareness and satisfaction, through aesthetic, ethical, and ascetic experiences.


What are the main contributions and limitations of Schopenhauer's philosophy? One could argue that Schopenhauer's philosophy offers a profound and realistic account of the human condition, that challenges the optimism and rationalism of the Enlightenment and the Romanticism of his time. One could also argue that Schopenhauer's philosophy provides a rich and insightful analysis of various aspects of human culture, such as art, religion, literature, psychology, history, politics, and science. One could also argue that Schopenhauer's philosophy has a special appeal for those who wonder about life's meaning, along with those engaged in music, literature, and the visual arts.


On the other hand, one could also argue that Schopenhauer's philosophy is too pessimistic and nihilistic, that it denies any value or purpose to existence, and that it leads to a passive and resigned attitude towards life. One could also argue that Schopenhauer's philosophy is too metaphysical and speculative, that it relies on dubious arguments and assumptions, and that it contradicts empirical evidence and scientific knowledge. One could also argue that Schopenhauer's philosophy is too influenced by his personal biases and prejudices, such as his misogyny, his anti-Semitism, his elitism, and his misanthropy.


What are the implications and applications of Schopenhauer's philosophy for modern life? One could argue that Schopenhauer's philosophy is still relevant and useful for modern life, as it helps us to cope with the challenges and uncertainties of our times, such as globalization, environmental crisis, social injustice, terrorism, consumerism, and nihilism. One could also argue that Schopenhauer's philosophy inspires us to seek alternative ways of living and thinking, such as embracing compassion, creativity, spirituality, and simplicity. One could also argue that Schopenhauer's philosophy encourages us to question our assumptions and values, and to explore new possibilities of meaning and happiness.


FAQs




Here are some frequently asked questions about The World as Will and Representation and Schopenhauer's philosophy.


Q: How can I download a free ebook version of The World as Will and Representation in a rar format?




A: You can download a free ebook version of The World as Will and Representation in a rar format from this link: https://archive.org/details/worldaswillandrepr01schouoft/page/n7/mode/2up. You will need a software program such as WinRAR or 7-Zip to extract the files from the rar archive.


Q: What is the difference between Schopenhauer's concept of will and Nietzsche's concept of will to power?




A: Schopenhauer's concept of will is a blind, unconscious, and insatiable force that drives all phenomena and beings. Nietzsche's concept of will to power is a creative, conscious, and dynamic force that expresses itself in various forms of domination and resistance. Schopenhauer views the will as a source of suffering and evil. Nietzsche views the will to power as a source of vitality and value.


Q: What is Schopenhauer's view on women?




A: Schopenhauer's view on women is notoriously negative and misogynistic. He regards women as inferior to men in intelligence, morality, creativity, and dignity. He believes that women are driven by sexual instinct and vanity. He thinks that women are incapable of true friendship or love. He advises men to avoid marriage or relationships with women.


Q: What is Schopenhauer's view on animals?




A: Schopenhauer's view on animals is remarkably positive and compassionate. He regards animals as manifestations of the will at a lower level of objectification than humans. He believes that animals have feelings, emotions, and rights. He thinks that animals deserve respect and kindness from humans. He opposes animal cruelty and advocates vegetarianism.


Q: What is Schopenhauer's view on music?




A: Schopenhauer's view on music is highly original and influential. He regards music as the highest and most universal form of art. He believes that music is a direct expression of the will itself, rather than a representation of the Ideas or archetypes of things. He thinks that music has a powerful effect on our emotions and moods. He considers music as a way of transcending the world of representation and accessing the essence of reality.





This is the end of the article. I hope you enjoyed reading it and learned something new about The World as Will and Representation and Schopenhauer's philosophy. Thank you for your attention. 71b2f0854b


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