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Nec Article 480 Storage Batteries Pdf 19


NEC Article 480: Storage Batteries




Storage batteries are devices that store electrical energy in the form of chemical energy and convert it back to electrical energy when needed. They are widely used in various applications, such as backup power, renewable energy systems, electric vehicles, and telecommunications. However, storage batteries also pose potential hazards, such as fire, explosion, electric shock, and acid spillage. Therefore, they need to be installed and maintained in accordance with the National Electrical Code (NEC) Article 480, which applies to all stationary installations of storage batteries.


Scope and Definitions




Article 480 covers the installation of all types of storage batteries, including lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, lithium-ion, and others. It does not cover portable batteries, such as those used in cell phones, laptops, or flashlights. It also does not cover batteries that are an integral part of equipment, such as uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) or emergency lighting units. However, it does cover the wiring and equipment connected to the battery terminals.


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Article 480 defines some key terms related to storage batteries, such as:



  • Battery: Two or more cells connected together electrically to furnish electric energy.



  • Battery Bank: A group of batteries connected together to form a single source.



  • Battery System: A battery bank and all associated equipment, such as chargers, inverters, controllers, disconnects, overcurrent protection devices, and interconnecting cables.



  • Cell: A single unit that converts chemical energy into electrical energy by means of an electrochemical reaction.



  • Vented Battery: A battery that releases gas to the atmosphere under normal operating conditions.



  • Valve-Regulated Battery: A battery that is designed to retain the gases generated during charging and recombine them within the cell. Also known as sealed or maintenance-free battery.




Installation Requirements




Article 480 specifies the general requirements for the installation of storage batteries, such as:



  • The location and accessibility of the battery system.



  • The ventilation and temperature control of the battery room or enclosure.



  • The protection from physical damage and environmental exposure.



  • The marking and labeling of the battery system components.



  • The grounding and bonding of the battery system components.



  • The isolation and disconnection of the battery system from other sources.



  • The overcurrent protection and sizing of the battery system conductors.



  • The spacing and support of the battery system conductors.



  • The termination and connection of the battery system conductors.




Article 480 also provides specific requirements for different types of storage batteries, such as lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, lithium-ion, and others. These requirements address the unique characteristics and hazards of each type of battery, such as electrolyte composition, gas emission, thermal runaway, short circuit current, etc. For example:



  • Vented lead-acid batteries shall be installed in a dedicated room or enclosure that is well ventilated to prevent the accumulation of hydrogen gas. The room or enclosure shall have a sign that reads "BATTERY ROOM VENTILATE WELL" or equivalent wording. The room or enclosure shall also have an eye wash station and a fire extinguisher suitable for Class B fires.



  • Nickel-cadmium batteries shall be installed in a manner that prevents contact with incompatible materials, such as copper or brass. The terminals and connectors shall be coated with a corrosion-resistant material. The electrolyte level shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. The electrolyte shall be handled with care to avoid skin contact or ingestion.



  • Lithium-ion batteries shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and specifications. The battery system shall have a means to monitor the temperature and voltage of each cell or module. The battery system shall also have a means to disconnect or isolate each cell or module in case of overtemperature or overvoltage conditions. The battery system shall be protected from external heat sources and ignition sources.




Conclusion




Storage batteries are useful and versatile devices that can provide reliable and clean energy for various applications. However, they also pose potential hazards that need to be addressed by proper installation and maintenance. Article 480 of the NEC provides the minimum safety standards for the installation of storage batteries. It covers the general and specific requirements for different types of storage batteries, such as lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, lithium-ion, and others. By following the provisions of Article 480, the electrical contractors and installers can ensure the safe and efficient operation of storage battery systems.




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